Notes to the consolidated financial statements (IFRS)


Corporate information

Tieto Corporation is a Finnish public limited company organized under the laws of Finland and domiciled in Helsinki. The company is listed on NASDAQ Helsinki and Stockholm. The Board of Directors approved the consolidated financial statements to be published on 5 February 2015. According to the Limited Liability Companies Act, the shareholders have the right at the Annual General Meeting to approve, disapprove or change the consolidated financial statements after the publication.

Basis of preparation

These consolidated financial statements of Tieto Corporation are prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as adopted by the European Union. The consolidated financial statements are presented in millions of euros and have been prepared under historical cost conventions, unless otherwise stated in these accounting policies.

New and amended standards and interpretations

In preparing these financial statements, the Group has followed the same accounting policies as in the annual financial statements for 2013 except for the effect of changes required by the adoption of the following new standards, interpretations and amendments to existing standards and interpretations on 1 January 2014.

  • IFRS 11, 'Joint arrangements'. The standard is a more realistic reflection of joint arrangements by focusing on the rights and obligations of the arrangement rather than its legal form. There are two types of joint arrangement: joint operations and joint ventures. Joint operations arise where a joint operator has rights to the assets and obligations relating to the arrangement and hence accounts for its share of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses. Joint ventures arise where the joint operator has a right to the net assets of the arrangement and hence equity accounts for its interest. Proportional consolidation of joint ventures is no longer allowed. Tieto reports the results as one line above operating profit (EBIT). The equity accounting decreased the Group's annual net sales 2013 by around 4%. The change mainly affected the Industry Products (around 12% negative) and Managed Services (around 2% negative) service lines. Of the industry groups, the change mainly affected Financial Services (around 10% negative) and Public Healthcare and Welfare (around 7% negative). EBIT is affected by the amount corresponding to Tieto's share of joint ventures' financial items and taxes. The company's net profit for the period is not affected. Adjusted comparative information has been provided to the preceding comparative period.
  • IFRS 10, 'Consolidated financial statements'. The objective of the standard is to establish principles for the presentation and preparation of consolidated financial statements when an entity controls one or more other entities to present consolidated financial statements. It defines the principle of control, and establishes controls as the basis for consolidation and sets out how to apply the principle of control to identify whether an investor controls an investee and therefore must consolidate the investee. The standard does not currently have any impact on the Group's financial statements.
  • IFRS 12, 'Disclosures of interests in other entities'. The standard includes the disclosure requirements for all forms of interest in other entities, including joint arrangements, associates, special purpose vehicles and other off balance sheet vehicles. The standard increased disclosed information of joint ventures.
  • Other standards, amendments and interpretations which are effective 1 January 2014 are not material to the Group.

New relevant standards not yet effective:

  • IFRS 15, 'Revenue from contracts with customers' replaces IAS 18 'Revenue' and IAS 11 'Construction contracts' and related interpretations. Revenue is recognized when a customer obtains control of a good or service and thus has the ability to direct the use and obtain the benefits from the good or service. The core principle of IFRS 15 is that an entity recognizes revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. An entity recognizes revenue in accordance with that core principle by applying the following steps:
  • Step 1: Identify the contract(s) with a customer
  • Step 2: Identify the performance obligations in the contracts
  • Step 3: Determine the transaction price
  • Step 4: Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contracts
  • Step 5: Recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation​

IFRS 15 also includes a cohesive set of disclosure requirements that will result in an entity providing users of financial statements with comprehensive information about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from the entity's contracts with the customers. The standard is effective 1 January 2017 and earlier application is permitted. The management is assessing the impact of the change on the Group's financial statements.

  • IFRS 9, 'Financial instruments', replaces the guidance in IAS 39 that relates to the classification and measurement of financial instruments. IFRS 9 retains but simplifies the mixed measurement model and establishes three primary measurement categories for financial assets: amortized cost, fair value through OCI and fair value through P&L. The basis of classification depends on the entity's business model and the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset. IFRS 9 relaxes the requirements for hedge effectiveness by replacing the bright line hedge effectiveness tests. The standard is effective 1 January 2018. Early adoption is permitted. The management is assessing the impact of the change on the Group's financial statements.
  • There are no other IFRSs or IFRIC interpretations that are not yet effective that would be expected to have a material impact on the Group.

Consolidation principles

The consolidated financial statements include the Parent company Tieto Corporation and all subsidiaries over which the Parent company has direct or indirect control generally accompanying a shareholding of more than one half of the voting rights. The existence and effect of potential voting rights that are currently exercisable or convertible are considered when assessing whether the Group controls another entity.

Subsidiaries are consolidated from the date of acquisition until the date of divestment.

The Group uses the acquisition method of accounting to account for business combinations. The consideration transferred for the acquisition of a subsidiary is the fair values of the assets transferred, the liabilities incurred and the equity interests issued by the Group. The consideration transferred includes the fair value of any asset or liability resulting from a contingent consideration arrangement. Acquisition related costs are expensed as incurred. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities and contingent liabilities assumed in a business combination are measured initially at their fair values at the acquisition date. On an acquisition-by-acquisition basis, the Group recognizes any non-controlling interest in the acquiree either at fair value or at the non-controlling interest's proportionate share of the acquiree's net assets.

The excess of the consideration transferred, the amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree and the acquisition-date fair value of any previous equity interest in the acquiree over the fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. If this is less than the fair value of the net assets of the subsidiary acquired in the case of a bargain purchase, the difference is recognized directly in the statement of comprehensive income.

Intra-group receivables, payables and transactions including dividends and internal profit are eliminated on consolidation.

Tieto Corporation holds interests in joint ventures for which it has right to the net assets of the arrangement and hence equity accounts for its interest according to IFRS 11. Under the equity method of accounting, interests in joint ventures are initially recognized at cost and adjusted thereafter to recognize the group's share of the post-acquisition profits or losses and movements in other comprehensive income. When the group's share of losses in a joint venture equals or exceeds its interests in the joint ventures, the group does not recognize further losses, unless it has incurred obligations or made payments on behalf of the joint ventures.

Non-controlling interests are shown separately under consolidated shareholders' equity.

Segment reporting

The Group's operating model comprises of a matrix structure of service lines and industry groups, of which the service line dimension constitutes the main operating segments. The reportable operating segments in service line dimension are Managed Services, Consulting and System Integration, Industry Products and Product Development Services. The operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the chief operating decision maker. The chief operating decision maker, who is responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance of the operating segments, has been identified as the Leadership Team that makes strategic decisions.

Goodwill is allocated to the Cash Generating Units, which include several countries and therefore goodwill is not included in the country specific non-current assets presented in the segment information.

Foreign currency translation

Items included in the financial statements of each of the Group's entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates ('the functional currency'). The consolidated financial statements are presented in euro, which is the Group's presentation currency.

Foreign currency transactions are translated at the exchange rate prevailing on the transaction date. The foreign currency monetary items are translated using period end exchange rates. The foreign currency non-monetary items held at fair value are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rate prevailing at the date when the fair value was determined or remeasured. Other non-monetary items are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the transaction date.

Foreign exchange gains and losses related to business operations are included in operating profit except when deferred in other comprehensive income as qualifying cash flow hedges. Foreign exchange gains and losses associated with financing are reported in financial income and expenses.

The results and financial positions of all the group entities (none of which has the currency of a hyper-inflationary economy) that have a funcional currency different from the presentation currency are translated into the presentation currency as follows:

a) assets and liabilities for each balance sheet presented are translated at the closing rate at the date of that balance sheet;
b) income and expenses for each income statement are translated at average exhange rates;
c) all resulting exhange differences are recognized in other comprehensive income.

When a subsidiary is sold, any translation differences are recognized in the consolidated income statement as part of the gain or loss on the sale.

Goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on the acquisition of a foreign entity are treated as assets and liabilities of the foreign entity and translated at the closing rate. Exchange differences arising are recognized in other comprehesive income.

Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized in accordance with the requirements of IAS 11 and 18. Revenue comprises the fair value for the sale of IT services and goods, net of value-added tax, discounts and exchange rate differences. Services mainly include the development of customized software solutions, maintenance of software solutions, and processing and network services. Goods mainly include sales of software licences.

Sales of services are recognized in the accounting period in which the service is rendered. Revenue from fixed price projects and similar types of customer agreements is recognized according to the stage-of-completion method, which is calculated monthly by comparing costs of completed work hours against total estimated costs of work hours to finalize the project. Stage-of-completion method is used provided that the degree of completion can be assessed reliably and the amount of the income and costs related to the service contract can be estimated reliably. If these conditions are not met, revenue only equal to costs incurred to date is recognized to the extent that such costs are expected to be recovered. The operations are steered based on project performance and direct costs are linked to deliveries in services lines, which constitute the main operating segments. In the follow-up of the customer projects, the project is considered as loss-making when the total direct costs are estimated to exceed the total expected revenue and a provision corresponding to the uncovered direct costs is immediately recognized

 Sales of goods are recognized when the decisive risks and rewards that are connected with the ownership of the goods sold are transferred to the buyer and the seller retains neither a continuing right to dispose of the goods, nor effective control of those goods.

Transition costs incurred in the initial phase of continuous operating service contracts are expensed as they arise. Revenue from the operating service contracts is based on service volumes and is recognized when the services are rendered.

 Order Backlog

The reported order backlog includes all signed customer orders that have not been recognized as revenue.

Other operating income

Other operating income mainly includes gains from both asset and business disposals, rental income and government grants. Gains from discontinued operations are included in the net profits of the discontinued operations.

Government grants

Government grants relating to costs are deferred and recognized as Other operating income over the period necessary to match them with the costs that they are intended to compensate.

Research and development costs

Research costs are expensed as incurred. Development expenditures related to major new business concepts and software products are capitalized as intangible assets when their future recoverability can reasonably be established and the following criteria can be demonstrated: the technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that it will be available for sale and use, the intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it, the ability to use or sell the intangible asset, the availability of adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the intangible asset. In addition, the ability to demonstrate how the intangible asset will generate future economic benefits is required and the ability to measure reliably the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development. Intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortizations and accumulated impairment losses.

Income taxes

The tax expense for the period includes current taxes of the Group companies based on taxable profit for the year, together with tax adjustments for previous years and changes in deferred taxes. Tax is recognized in the income statement, except to the extent that it relates to items recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity. In this case, the tax is also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity.

Deferred income tax is recognized, using the liability method, on temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the consolidated financial statements. Deferred income tax is determined using the tax rates and laws which have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date and are expected to apply when the related deferred income tax asset is realized or the deferred income tax liability is settled. The most significant temporary differences arise from depreciation differences, employee benefits and intangible assets. Deferred taxes are accounted for temporary differences except for the following: goodwill not deductible for taxation purposes, the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction other than a business combination that affect neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss, and differences relating to investments in subsidiaries to the extent that they will probably not be reversed in the foreseeable future.

A deferred tax asset is recognized only to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the asset can be utilized. The deferred tax assets and liabilities arising from consolidation are recognized in the consolidated balance sheet if it is probable that the related tax effects will occur.


Goodwill arises on the acquisition of subsidiaries and represents the excess of the consideration transferred over Tieto Corporation's interest in net fair value of the net identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of the acquiree and the fair value of the non-controlling interest in the acquiree.

Impairment testing of goodwill

Goodwill acquired in a business combination is tested for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. For the purpose of impairment testing goodwill is allocated to each of the cash-generating units (CGU) or groups of CGUs, that is expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination. Each unit or group of units represents the lowest level within the entity at which the goodwill is monitored for internal management purposes. If the carrying amount of goodwill exceeds its recoverable amount an impairment loss equal to the difference is recognized.

The recoverable amount is the higher of value in use represented by the net present value of future cash flows and the fair value less costs to sell.

Intangible assets

Acquired intangible assets are capitalized at cost. Intangible assets acquired in business combinations are capitalized at fair value at the acquisition date. The useful lives of the intangible assets are assessed to be either finite or indefinite. Intangible assets with finite useful lives are amortized over their useful lives. Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are tested for impairment annually or if events or changes in circumstances indicate that such carrying amount may not be recoverable. Intangible assets recognized by the Group in business combinations are usually customer or technology related and have finite useful lives. Marketing related intangible assets are not generally recognized by Tieto because normally the value of acquired business constitutes of customer relationships, technologies and personnel (which is included in goodwill) and therefore the marketing related intangible assets do not generally have separately recognizable fair value.

Property, plant and equipment

Land is not depreciated. Other fixed assets are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is charged according to plan based on the estimated economic lives of the individual assets and accounted for in accordance with the straight-line method. The assets' residual useful lives are reviewed, and adjusted if appropriate, at each balance sheet date.

 The Group applies the following economic lives: 

Buildings 25–40
Data processing equipment 1) 1–5
Other machinery and equipment 5
Other tangible assets 5


  • Leases of lessees
    Lease agreements are classified as finance and operating leases. Assets procured under finance lease agreements are capitalized as fixed assets and depreciated during the estimated useful lives. The annual rents are disclosed as amortization of the finance lease liability and interest expenses.

    Leases in which a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership is retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Payments made under operating leases are charged to the income statement on a straightline basis over the period of the lease.
  • Leases of lessors
    If an arrangement conveys a right to use a specific asset to a purchaser, often together with related services the assets, mainly technical equipment, are classified as embedded finance leases. Sales derived from these embedded finance leases are recognized at the beginning of the agreement period. The annual payments are disclosed as amortization of the finance lease loan receivable and interest income.

Financial instruments


Financial assets are classified into the following categories

1) At fair value through profit or loss

Derivatives, comprising foreign exchange forward contracts, currency options, power derivatives and interest rate swaps.

2) Loans and receivables

Fixed-term deposits, principally comprising of funds held with banks and other financial institutions, and short-term and long-term loan receivables, as well as trade and other receivables, are classified as loans and receivables. In the balance sheet, they are reported according to their nature either in trade and other receivables, loan receivables or cash and cash equivalents (current assets) or in loan receivables or other non-current assets (non-current assets). Investments in money market instruments are reported as short-term deposits under cash and cash equivalents.

3) Available-for-sale financial assets

Investments in equity instruments, except for investments in associated companies and joint ventures, are classified as assets available-for-sale. They are included in noncurrent assets unless the investment matures or management intends to dispose of it within 12 months of the end of the reporting period.

Financial liabilities are classified into categories

1) At fair value through profit or loss

Derivatives, comprising foreign exchange forward contracts, currency options, power derivatives and interest rate swaps.

2) Financial liabilities measured at amortized cost

Short-term borrowings and overdrafts as well as long-term loans and trade and other payables are classified as financial liabilities measured at amortized cost. Loans are included in non-current and current liabilities.

Recognition and de-recognition

All financial instruments are initially recognized at fair value. Transaction costs are included in the carrying value only if the financial instrument is not recorded at fair value through profit or loss in which case transaction costs are expensed in income statement. Usually the fair value equals amount received or paid.

Financial assets are derecognized when the rights to receive cash flows from the investments have expired or have been transferred and the group has transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership.

Financial liabilities are derecognised when they are extinguished, that is when the obligation is discharged, cancelled or expired.

Subsequent measurement

Subsequent measurement of financial instruments depends on the designation of the instruments

  • Financial assets and liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

    The valuation method is described in the footnote of Note 27. Related valuation changes are reported, depending on their nature, in the income statement in the financial income and expenses, in other income from operations and other operating expenses in exchange rate gains and losses (foreign exchange forward contracts) and in other financial income and expenses (currency options). The rest of the valuation changes are shown in interest income and expenses (interest rate swaps) and in other operating expenses (power derivatives), except for when applying hedge accounting where fair value changes are reported in other comprehensive income.

    In the balance sheet the fair value of financial assets from this category are reported under trade and other receivables or trade and other payables if asset or liability due in less than 12 months. In case the asset or liability is due in later than 12 months, it is reported under other noncurrent assets and liabilities in the balance sheet.
  • Loans and receivables

    Loans and receivables are subsequanetly carried at amortized cost, using the effective interest method.
  • Available-for-sale financial assets

    Available-for-sale financial assets are measured at fair value if fair value can be measured reliably. Unrealized gains and losses are recognized in shareholders' equity. If fair value is not available, the assets are held at initial value. The available-for-sale assets are reported under other noncurrent assets in the balance sheet. When the investment is sold, the accumulated fair value adjustment is recognized in the income statement.
  • Financial liabilities measured at amortized cost

    Interest expense and transaction costs are amortized in the income statement over the maturity of the loan using the effective interest method.

Impairment of financial assets

  • Assets carried at amortized cost

    The Group assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is objective evidence that a financial asset or a group of assets is impaired. A financial asset is regarded impaired if one or more of the following events have occurred after the initial recognition of the asset and that event has an impact on the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset:

1. significant financial difficulty of the issuer or obligor
2. a breach of contract such as default in interest or principal payments
3. it becomes probable that the borrower will enter bankruptcy or other financial reorganisation
4. the disappearance of an active market for that financial asset because of financial difficulties.

Possible impairment is booked in the income statement.

  • Assets classified as available for sale

    The Group assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is objective evidence that a financial asset or a group of assets is impaired. For debt securities the Group uses the criteria above. In the case of equity investments classified as available for sale, the Group evaluates whether there is any evidence of prolonged decline in the fair value of the security, thus justifying the assets are impaired. If such evidence exists, the impairmaint is booked in the income statement.

Derivative financial instruments and hedging activities

Derivatives are initially recognized at fair value on the date a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently remeasured at their fair value. The Group designates certain derivatives as hedges of a particular risk associated with a recognized asset or liability or a highly probable forecast transaction (cash flow hedge).

The Group documents the relationship between the hedging instrument and the underlying risk at the time of hedging transaction. The Group also documents its assessment, both at hedge inception and on ongoing basis, of wheather the derivatives that are used in hedging transactions are highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of hedged items.

The fair values of various derivative instruments used for hedging purposes are disclosed in note 28. Movements on the hedging reserve in other comprehensive income are also attached to the note 28.

The effective portion of changes in fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognized in other comprehensive income. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion of cash flow hedge is recognized immediately in the income statement within the operating income and expenses. Amounts accumulated in equity are reclassified to profit or loss in the periods when the hedged item affects profit or loss (e.g. when the forecast sale that is hedged takes place).

When a hedging instrument expires or is sold, or when a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative gain or loss existing in equity at that time remains in equity and is recognized when the forecast transaction is ultimately recognized in the income statement. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss that was reported in equity is immediately transferred to the income statement within other gain/losses – net.

Trade and other receivables

Trade and other receivables are carried at their nominal value or original amount due from customers, which is considered to be fair value, less a provision for doubtful receivables. The provision for doubtful accounts is recorded in the income statement and measured based on the principles defined in the Corporate credit policy. The provision is an accounting estimate of the amount of receivables with a high probability to be written off as uncollectable. The accounting estimate is based on the amount of receivables overdue for a period of time defined in the credit policy. The final write off decision is made based on individual assessment of the potential collectability risk involved.

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash balances and call deposits with banks and other liquid investments with a maturity of less than 3 months. Bank overdrafts are included in short-term borrowings under current liabilities.


A provision is a liability of uncertain timing or amount, which should be recognized when the entity has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of a past event and it is more likely than not that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are measured at the present value of the expenditures expected to be required to settle the obligation using a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the obligation.

Employee benefits

The Group operates a number of different pension plans in accordance with national requirements and practices. The majority of the plans are classified as defined contribution plans. Payments to defined contribution plans are recognized as employee benefit expenses when the contributions are due. The Group has no further payment obligations once the contributions have been paid.

A defined benefit plan is a pension plan that is not a defined contribution plan. Typically defined benefit plans define an amount of pension benefit that an employee will receive on retirement, usually dependent on one or more factors such as age, years of service and compensation.

For defined benefit pension plans the liability equals the present value of the defined benefit obligation less the fair value of the plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by independent actuaries using the projected unit credit method. The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows using the interest rates of high-quality corporate bonds that are denominated in the currency in which the benefits will be paid and that have terms to maturity approximating to the terms of the related pension obligation. In countries where there is no deep market in such bonds, the market rates on government bonds are used.

The net interest of the net defined benefit liability or asset is presented among financial items.

Actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to equity in other comprehensive income in the period in which they arise.

Share-based payments

Tieto uses in its incentive programmes share options classified as being paid equity as well as rewards, which can either be paid in the form of shares, in the form of a cash payment or as a combination thereof. The fair value of the employee services received in exchange for the grant of the stock options and shares is recognized as an expense during the vesting period. The cost of such services is measured by reference to the fair value of the options at the grant date. Terms and conditions which are not on market terms (e.g. targets related to the financial results and the duration of the employment relationship) are taken into account in the number of the share options, which the employees are expected to become entitled to. The amount to be booked as an expense will be allocated to the period of time, during which all the criteria for the generation of the right are to be fullfilled. An estimate of the number of share options to which a right is expected to be generated based on the terms and conditions not being on market terms, is checked on each financial statement date. The possible effect of the readjustments made to the original estimates is recorded in the income statement and a corresponding adjustment is made to the equity.

The rewards granted in the form of shares are booked as an employee benefit expense and as an increase in the equity. Share-based compensation is recognized as an expense in the income statement over the service period. The fair value of the amount payable to the employees in respect of share appreciation rights, which are settled in cash, is recognized as an expense with a corresponding increase in liabilities over the period in which the employees become unconditionally entitled to the payment. The liability is measured at each reporting date and at the settlement day. Any changes in the fair value of the liability are recognized as employee benefit expenses in the income statement.

The level of the realization of the set financial targets influences the amount in which rewards are to be booked and paid.

Equity, dividends and own shares

Dividends proposed by the Board of Directors are not deducted from distributable equity until approved by the shareholders at the Annual General Meeting.

When Tieto Corporation's own shares are repurchased, the amount of the consideration paid, including directly attributable costs, is recognized as a deduction in equity.

Earnings per share

Earnings per share (EPS) is calculated by dividing the net profit attributable to the shareholders of the company by the weighted average number of shares in issue during the year, excluding shares purchased by Tieto Corporation.

Diluted earnings per share is calculated as if the warrants and options were exercised at the beginning of the period. In addition to the weighted average number of shares outstanding, the denominator includes the incremental shares obtained through the assumed exercise of the warrants and options. The assumption of exercise is not reflected in earnings per share when the exercise price of the warrants and options exceeds the average market price of the shares during the period. The warrants and options have a diluting effect only when the average market price of the share during the period exceeds the exercise price of the warrants and options.

One-off items

In the analysis on financial performance, items that are material either because of their size or their nature, and that are non-recurring are considered as one-off items. Such items are e.g. impairment losses, capital gains and losses on disposals and major restructuring programmes.

Critical accounting estimates and assumptions

The preparation of the financial statements in accordance with IFRS requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on management's best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results may differ from the estimates.

 Critical accounting estimates and assumptions are presented in the following disclosures:

Revenue recognition 1
Impairment of goodwill 15
Income taxes 17
Share-based payments 21
Employee benefits 22
Fair value of derivatives and other financial instruments 27–28